911全國演說-美國總統布什
文章來源: 文章作者: 發布時間:2006-12-25 08:50 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
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背景知識

2001年9月11日,是美國人以至全世界不會忘記的日子。在兩小時之內,四架美國民航客機被騎劫。其中兩架撞向紐約世界貿易中心,樓高110層、標志了紐約經貿中心地位的雙子塔,分別被撞穿一個大洞,烈焰滔天,然后在全世界目光注視之下,相繼倒塌,灰飛煙滅。

第三架被騎劫民航客機,撞向美國首都華盛頓的國防部--五角大樓,第四架在賓夕法尼亞州的匹茲堡東南面墜毀。

今次是日本偷襲珍珠港以來,美國受到的最大型襲擊,死亡人數至少數以千計,人民一片恐慌,華盛頓進入緊急狀態。

美國總統布什,在恐怖分子發動襲擊之后大約12小時,在白宮發表演說,譴責恐怖分子的所為是邪惡的行為,誓言會動員所有力量,捉拿幕后策劃的元兇,亦會對付那些包庇恐怖分子的人。

演講正文

President Bush's address
11/9/2001, Tuesday night, After terrorist attacks on New York and Washington

Good evening. Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts.

The victims were in airplanes or in their offices -- secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers. Moms and dads. Friends and neighbors.

Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable acts of terror.

The pictures of airplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing2, have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness and a quiet, unyielding anger.

These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos3 and retreat. But they have failed. Our country is strong. A great people has been moved to defend a great nation.

Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent1 the steel of American resolve.

America was targeted for attack because we're the brightest beacon4 for freedom and opportunity in the world. And no one will keep that light from shining.

Today, our nation saw evil, the very worst of human nature, and we responded with the best of America, with the daring of our rescue workers, with the caring for strangers and neighbors who came to give blood and help in any way they could.

Immediately following the first attack, I implemented5 our government's emergency response plans. Our military is powerful, and it's prepared. Our emergency teams are working in New York City and Washington, D.C., to help with local rescue efforts.

Our first priority is to get help to those who have been injured and to take every precaution to protect our citizens at home and around the world from further attacks.

The functions of our government continue without interruption. Federal agencies in Washington which had to be evacuated6 today are reopening for essential personnel tonight and will be open for business tomorrow.

Our financial institutions remain strong, and the American economy will be open for business as well.

The search is underway for those who are behind these evil acts. I've directed the full resources for our intelligence and law enforcement communities to find those responsible and bring them to justice. We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.

I appreciate so very much the members of Congress who have joined me in strongly condemning7 these attacks. And on behalf of the American people, I thank the many world leaders who have called to offer their condolences and assistance.

America and our friends and allies join with all those who want peace and security in the world and we stand together to win the war against terrorism.

Tonight I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened. And I pray they will be comforted by a power greater than any of us spoken through the ages in Psalm8 23: "Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me."

This is a day when all Americans from every walk of life unite in our resolve for justice and peace. America has stood down enemies before, and we will do so this time.

None of us will ever forget this day, yet we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world.

Thank you. Good night and God bless America.

評價講解

2001年9月11日是人類文明世界的一個恥辱日,這一日,據說是伊斯蘭的極端恐怖分子,騎劫了四架美國民航客機,用自殺方式,攻擊紐約世貿中心的一對摩天大廈,以及華盛頓國防部的五角大樓。

美國蒙受奇恥大辱,舉國上下久未經歷如此大的災難,人民可能會陷于崩潰,這時若沒有一個強而有力的政府和領袖,很容易會釀成更大的災難。美國總統布什上任短短七個月,其路線、形像和政策,均備受批評,但在如此重大時刻,布什則顯示出非凡的領導能力,事發當晚,他正式向全國國民發表了一篇演說。

布什這次演說,未必可和我們介紹過的林肯和馬丁路德金相比,但就文采和語調而言,無疑亦是一篇有份量之作,演詞有幾點值得討論。

例如︰The victims were in airplanes or in their offices -- secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers. Moms and dads. Friends and neighbours. 布什在這篇演說中用了宏觀的手法,描述在災難中死亡的美國人,句中采用的名詞,所代表的階級非常廣泛,是經過深思熟慮挑選出來的。

Secretaries秘書、businessmen 商人,接著提婦女women,大家也許知道,女權運動在美國非常興盛,這一句women婦女,是直接向美國的婦女動之以情。最后一定要講Moms and dads,不用fathers and mothers, Moms and dads原本是一些不登大雅之堂的俗語,但演講要視對象而定,布什是向全國人民以至全世界人民演講,一定要用盡量淺白的言語。Moms and dads,每個字只有一個音節,比fathers and mothers更加簡潔。

細心想想這些詞匯,可說將所有人一網打盡,而且布什用了一連串這樣的字眼︰爹地、媽咪、鄰居和朋友……即使你不認識災場中的死傷者,感覺上也會跟他們非常親切。這就是一個演說家所表現出來的非凡的智能。

另外一句也很重要︰Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable acts of terror. 這里可顯示出英語被動語式的靈活,布什將數千條無辜的生命放在前面,而evil則是邪惡。英語中evil這個字不能隨便用,他當然可說bad、wicked或criminal,但這些只是級數比較低的字眼,指稱這樣嚴重的罪行,一定要將文字兵器庫內那口核彈抬出來,這個核彈級的形容詞就是evil。

歷史上只有希特拉配得上用evil這形容詞,所以當我們在香港聽到有些人說法輪功是邪教,譯成英文變成It is an evil cult時,肯定令英語世界的人聞之失笑,用evil來形容一個信仰,絕對言過其實、非常夸張。字典可告訴你evil是甚么意思,但放在文本中,其上下文所傳達出來的意思,就一定要在英語世界生活過,才能準確使用。

前港督彭定康離任前在立法局發表最后一份施政報告時,也曾引用美國詩人杰克˙倫敦(Jack London)的詩句,一篇有力的演詞,有時必須引用古今名人的例句和經典,加強自己的說法的感染力。布什總統引用了圣經詩篇中的句子︰Tonight I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened. And I pray they will be comforted by a power greater than any of us spoken through the ages in Psalm 23: "Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me."

這里用了一個委婉詞Euphemism︰a power greater than any of us,指的是舉頭三尺的神明,其實用一個God字已可代替,但這里不用God字,因為要留待最后一句才用。在英語演講中,有些字眼要不斷重復,有些字則要靈活變化。

"Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me." You當然是用大楷,因為指上帝,the valley of the shadow of death是死亡陰影的幽谷。在小說天路歷程The Pilgrim's Progress中,描述了一個基督徒,在尋找永生的旅途上,也路經了the valley of the shadow of death。

布什所用的結句是︰None of us will ever forget this day, yet we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world. Thank you. Good night and God bless America.

來到這里,結論應有千鈞之重,但用一句最簡單的日常生活的問候語、道別語︰Thank you. Good night and God bless America作結,如此俗套的用語,在這里卻有畫龍點睛的效果。

布什的演講最后有個關于文法的地方,值得拿出來討論︰We go forward to defend freedom.我們會挺身而出捍衛自由。go forward to后面得配一個簡單的動詞,很多香港人不知道forward to充滿機關,如︰We look forward to seeing you soon! look forward to后面一定要seeing you soon,因為前面一句forward是go的副詞,后一句look forward to三個字代表一個動詞hope。但用hope時,緊記要用We hope to see you soon!

 



點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 dent Bmcz9     
n.凹痕,凹坑;初步進展
參考例句:
  • I don't know how it came about but I've got a dent in the rear of my car.我不知道是怎么回事,但我的汽車后部有了一個凹痕。
  • That dent is not big enough to be worth hammering out.那個凹陷不大,用不著把它錘平。
2 collapsing 6becc10b3eacfd79485e188c6ac90cb2     
壓扁[平],毀壞,斷裂
參考例句:
  • Rescuers used props to stop the roof of the tunnel collapsing. 救援人員用支柱防止隧道頂塌陷。
  • The rocks were folded by collapsing into the center of the trough. 巖石由于坍陷進入凹槽的中心而發生褶皺。
3 chaos 7bZyz     
n.混亂,無秩序
參考例句:
  • After the failure of electricity supply the city was in chaos.停電后,城市一片混亂。
  • The typhoon left chaos behind it.臺風后一片混亂。
4 beacon KQays     
n.烽火,(警告用的)閃火燈,燈塔
參考例句:
  • The blink of beacon could be seen for miles.燈塔的光亮在數英里之外都能看見。
  • The only light over the deep black sea was the blink shone from the beacon.黑黢黢的海面上唯一的光明就只有燈塔上閃現的亮光了。
5 implemented a0211e5272f6fc75ac06e2d62558aff0     
v.實現( implement的過去式和過去分詞 );執行;貫徹;使生效
參考例句:
  • This agreement, if not implemented, is a mere scrap of paper. 這個協定如不執行只不過是一紙空文。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
  • The economy is in danger of collapse unless far-reaching reforms are implemented. 如果不實施影響深遠的改革,經濟就面臨崩潰的危險。 來自辭典例句
6 evacuated b2adcc11308c78e262805bbcd7da1669     
撤退者的
參考例句:
  • Police evacuated nearby buildings. 警方已將附近大樓的居民疏散。
  • The fireman evacuated the guests from the burning hotel. 消防隊員把客人們從燃燒著的旅館中撤出來。
7 condemning 3c571b073a8d53beeff1e31a57d104c0     
v.(通常因道義上的原因而)譴責( condemn的現在分詞 );宣判;宣布…不能使用;迫使…陷于不幸的境地
參考例句:
  • The government issued a statement condemning the killings. 政府發表聲明譴責這些兇殺事件。
  • I concur with the speaker in condemning what has been done. 我同意發言者對所做的事加以譴責。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
8 psalm aB5yY     
n.贊美詩,圣詩
參考例句:
  • The clergyman began droning the psalm.牧師開始以單調而低沈的語調吟誦贊美詩。
  • The minister droned out the psalm.牧師喃喃地念贊美詩。
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