大學英語四級語法精要(3)
文章來源: 文章作者: 發布時間:2009-01-06 06:57 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)

4) people, police, cattle, poultry1 (家禽), militia2 (民兵) 等通常都用作復數.
Cattle are grazing on the pasture.
The police are looking for him.

有些集體名詞有時作單數看待, 有時作復數看待, 主要根據意思來決定.
His family isn’t very large.
His family are all music lovers.

The committee meets twice a month.
The committee are divided in opinion.

The audience was enormous.
The audience were greatly moved at the words.

有些名詞單復數同形, 可根據意思決定謂語動詞的數:
This new series is beginning next month.
These new series are beginning next month.

This species is now extinct.
These species are now extinct.

5) 表示時間, 重量, 長度, 價值等的名詞, 盡管仍是復數形式, 如果作整體看待, 動詞也可用單數形式 (當然用復數動詞也是可以的):
Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
One hundred li was covered in a single night.

6) 其他問題
a) 書名, 國家名用單數:
Tales from Shakespeare is a book by Charles Lamb.


b) 學科名, 如mathematics, economics用單數.
c) many a 或more than one 所修飾的詞作主語時, 謂語動詞多用單數形式:
Many a person has had that kind of experience.
More than one person has involved in the case.

a number of 后接復數, the number of后接單數:
A number of books have been published on the subject.
The number of books published on the subject is simply amazing.

d) one of those 后用單數. 在“one of + 復數名詞 +關系分句”結構中,關系分句中謂語動詞的單復數形式在一般情況下有兩形式,一是根據先行詞采用復數形式:
Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful.

當one 之前友the only 等限定詞和修飾語時,關系分句謂語動詞根據one 而定,即采用單數形式:
He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.

Ⅱ 非謂語動詞

1. 不定式

1) 形式

主動形式 被動形式
一般式 to do to be done
完成式 to have done to have been done
進行式 to be doing
完成進行式 to have been doing

a) 完成式: 不定式的一般形式所表示的動作, 通常與主要謂語表示的動作(狀態)同時(或幾乎同時)發生, 或是在它之后發生. 假如不定式所表示的動作, 在謂語所表示的動作(狀態)之前發生, 就要用不定式的完成式.
I am glad to have seen your mother (= I am glad I have seen your mother).
(比較: I am glad to see you.)
He is said to have written a new book about workers.
He pretended not to have seen me.

b) 進行式: 如果主要謂語表示的動作(狀態)發生時, 不定式表示的動作正在進行, 這時要用不定式的進行式.
You are not supposed to be working. You haven’t quite recovered yet.
We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us here.
He pretended to be listening attentively3.


c) 完成進行式: 在謂語所表示的時間之前一直進行的動作, 就要用不定式的完成進行式.
The struggle was known to have been going for twenty years.
We are happy to have been working with you.

d) 被動式: 當不定式的邏輯上的主語是不定式所表示的動作的承受者時, 不定式一般要用被動形式.
It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here.
She hated to be flattered.
He wanted the letter to be typed at once.
This is bound to be found out.
There are a lot of things to be done.
She was too young to be assigned such work.



點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 poultry GPQxh     
n.家禽,禽肉
參考例句:
  • There is not much poultry in the shops. 商店里禽肉不太多。
  • What do you feed the poultry on? 你們用什么飼料喂養家禽?
2 militia 375zN     
n.民兵,民兵組織
參考例句:
  • First came the PLA men,then the people's militia.人民解放軍走在前面,其次是民兵。
  • There's a building guarded by the local militia at the corner of the street.街道拐角處有一幢由當地民兵團守衛的大樓。
3 attentively AyQzjz     
adv.聚精會神地;周到地;諦;凝神
參考例句:
  • She listened attentively while I poured out my problems. 我傾吐心中的煩惱時,她一直在注意聽。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • She listened attentively and set down every word he said. 她專心聽著,把他說的話一字不漏地記下來。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
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